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Horizontal Merger Guidelines Review Project Workshop: Panel 5
 
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Panel 5, General Discussion and Roundtable, from the 2009 Horizontal Merger Guidelines Review Project Workshop.
Views: 236 NYU School of Law
Measuring Market Concentration
 
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This topic looks at two measures of market concentration - namely the concentration ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). For more help with your A Level / IB Economics, visit tutor2u Economics http://www.tutor2u.net/economics If you find this topic video helpful, please SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel For more help with Economics: Follow tutor2u Economics on Twitter: https://twitter.com/tutor2uEcon https://twitter.com/tutor2uGeoff - - - - - - - - - MORE ABOUT TUTOR2U ECONOMICS: Visit tutor2u Economics for thousands of free study notes, videos, quizzes and more: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics A Level Economics Revision Flashcards: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/store/selections/alevel-economics-revision-flashcards A Level Economics Example Top Grade Essays: https://www.tutor2u.net/economics/store/selections/exemplar-essays-for-a-level-economics
Views: 22895 tutor2u
Unilateral Effects Assessment of Horizontal Mergers under the EUMR - Professor Ioannis Kokkoris
 
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Discussion of some of the factors the European Commission shall take into account in the assessment of unilateral effects of horizontal mergers under the EUMR
Views: 873 ikhydra3
Wall Street Greed: Financial Crises Since 3500 BCE (CC)
 
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Notes for Economics www.saseassociates.com In this video, we explore the the history of 19th-century thought and apply it to an analysis financial crises from Sumerian times to the present age. The take-away is that these economic booms and busts have continued to occur and reoccur over the millenia. Therefore, to sketch the profound changes of economic cycles we turn to some of the more esoteric economic thought to explore the subject in the context of multi-millenial Cultural and Empire Cycles all the way down to the more conventional Business Cycle. To accomplish this task, we review the economic, social, political, and cultural thoughts of polymaths such as Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Johann von Goethe, John Ruskin, Benjamin Diraeli, Rudolf Steiner, and others and incorporate their own words into our in-depth discussion. Through this approach, we demonstrate that in respect to the most recent economic crisis, 1. This time is NOT different, and 2. These cycles of multiple interweaving lengths extend back throughout human history as far as we can measure. WARNING: This is an esoteric approach to the understanding of economic cycles. First, we explore the economic thought and observations of a group of polymaths from the past and present centuries. Then, we apply their ideas to trace the rise and fall of economies at the level of Empire Cycles down to the more mundane but shorter Business Cycle.
Views: 16623 Video Economist
What is THE ANTITRUST PARADOX? What does THE ANTITRUST PARADOX mean?
 
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What is THE ANTITRUST PARADOX? What does THE ANTITRUST PARADOX mean? THE ANTITRUST PARADOX meaning - THE ANTITRUST PARADOX definition - THE ANTITRUST PARADOX explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Antitrust Paradox is a 1978 book by Robert Bork that criticized the state of United States antitrust law in the 1970s. A second edition, updated to reflect substantial changes in the law, was published in 1993. It is claimed that the work is the most cited book on antitrust. Bork has credited Aaron Director as well as other economists from the University of Chicago as influences. Bork argued that the original intent of antitrust laws as well as economic efficiency make consumer welfare and the protection of competition, rather than competitors, the only goals of antitrust law. Thus, while it was appropriate to prohibit cartels that fix prices and divide markets and mergers that create monopolies, practices that are allegedly exclusionary, such as vertical agreements and price discrimination, did not harm consumers and so should not be prohibited. The paradox of antitrust enforcement was that legal intervention artificially raised prices by protecting inefficient competitors from competition. The book was cited by over a hundred courts. From 1977 to 2007, the Supreme Court of the United States repeatedly adopted views stated in The Antitrust Paradox in such cases as Continental Television v. GTE Sylvania, 433 U.S. 36 (1977), Broadcast Music Inc. v. Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., NCAA v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Oklahoma, Spectrum Sports, Inc. v. McQuillan, State Oil Co. v. Khan, Verizon v. Trinko, and Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., legalizing many practices previously prohibited. The Antitrust Paradox has shaped antitrust law in several ways, prominently by focusing the discipline on efficiency and articulating its goal as "consumer welfare." Many lawyers and economists, however, have pointed out that Bork was wrong in his analysis of the legislative intent of the Sherman Act and have criticized him for incorrect economic assumptions and analytical errors. One of the key criticism focuses on Bork's use of the term "consumer welfare," which became the stated goal of American antitrust law. Bork argued that Congress enacted the Sherman Act as a "consumer welfare prescription." The Supreme Court embraced this view in Reiter v. Sonotone Corp., 442 U.S. 330 (1979) and in all subsequent decisions. Many scholars, however, have shown that Congress had several motives for the adoption of the Sherman Act, probably none of which was "consumer welfare." Moreover, Bork's use of the term "consumer welfare" was inconsistent with its use by economists. When the Supreme Court adopted the view that Congress enacted the Sherman Act as a "consumer welfare prescription," it did not define the meaning of the term, which has remained ambiguous.
Views: 198 The Audiopedia
Peter Joseph - Where Are We Going?
 
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Peter Joseph's November 15th 2009 presentation, given at Maharishi University (Fairfield, Iowa). Embedding & sharing is highly encouraged. Note: Linguistic Team International is the official all-volunteer translation house for The Venus Project and The Zeitgeist Movement. This Repository location contains only fully proofread versions of the transcript & its derived translations, crafted with care by LTI Language Teams. More languages are added as they are completed. If your language is not yet represented here, consider helping these translation efforts by joining your respective language team at the LTI Forum: https://forum.linguisticteam.org To learn more: https://www.thevenusproject.com https://resourcebasedeconomy.org https://thezeitgeistmovement.com
Strategy: Exam Help 2
 
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More tips for my strategy students for their exam at the best economics faculty in portugal FE UNL Nova...
Views: 1009 Mark Wolters
Epstein Conference - Panel 4: Administrative Law/Regulatory State
 
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In April 2018, the University of Chicago Law School and New York University School of Law co-sponsored a conference in honor of the fifty-year academic career and scholarship of Richard A. Epstein.
Parents of the Field: Dan Druckman
 
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Daniel Druckman’s work originally arose from his initial interest in negotiation behavior, but his writings cover a huge range of topics within that overall focus, including work on nationalism, the politics of base rights negotiation, the practice of peacekeeping and political conflict. His career included work for research organizations and in academia. http://scar.gmu.edu/parents
Spacetime geometry | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacetime 00:03:17 1 Introduction 00:03:26 1.1 Definitions 00:09:28 1.2 History 00:19:46 2 Spacetime in special relativity 00:19:57 2.1 Spacetime interval 00:31:57 2.2 Reference frames 00:33:07 2.3 Light cone 00:33:39 2.4 Relativity of simultaneity 00:33:57 2.5 Invariant hyperbola 00:35:04 2.6 Time dilation and length contraction 00:35:25 2.7 Mutual time dilation and the twin paradox 00:35:46 2.7.1 Mutual time dilation 00:35:54 2.7.2 Twin paradox 00:36:35 2.8 Gravitation 00:39:22 3 Basic mathematics of spacetime 00:40:12 3.1 Galilean transformations 00:41:32 3.2 Relativistic composition of velocities 00:43:06 3.3 Time dilation and length contraction revisited 00:46:36 3.4 Lorentz transformations 00:49:02 3.4.1 Deriving the Lorentz transformations 00:49:53 3.4.2 Linearity of the Lorentz transformations 00:50:05 3.5 Doppler effect 00:53:38 3.5.1 Longitudinal Doppler effect 00:59:38 3.5.2 Transverse Doppler effect 01:00:35 3.6 Energy and momentum 01:00:46 3.6.1 Extending momentum to four dimensions 01:01:55 3.6.2 Momentum of light 01:03:43 3.6.3 Mass-energy relationship 01:03:55 3.6.4 Four-momentum 01:04:08 3.7 Conservation laws 01:04:59 3.7.1 Total momentum 01:05:44 3.7.2 Choice of reference frames 01:06:01 3.7.3 Energy and momentum conservation 01:06:50 4 Beyond the basics 01:07:08 4.1 Rapidity 01:07:19 4.2 4‑vectors 01:08:50 4.2.1 Definition of 4-vectors 01:09:03 4.2.2 Properties of 4-vectors 01:10:44 4.2.3 Examples of 4-vectors 01:11:04 4.2.4 4-vectors and physical law 01:13:26 4.3 Acceleration 01:13:54 4.3.1 Dewan–Beran–Bell spaceship paradox 01:14:48 4.3.2 Accelerated observer with horizon 01:19:25 5 Introduction to curved spacetime 01:19:54 5.1 Basic propositions 01:20:41 5.2 Curvature of time 01:22:40 5.3 Curvature of space 01:22:58 5.4 Sources of spacetime curvature 01:23:21 5.4.1 Energy-momentum 01:23:37 5.4.2 Pressure and stress 01:25:03 5.4.3 Experimental verification 01:26:21 5.4.3.1 • Active, passive, and inertial mass 01:27:03 5.4.3.2 • Pressure as a gravitational source 01:27:10 5.4.3.3 • Gravitomagnetism 01:27:20 6 Technical topics 01:27:54 6.1 Is spacetime really curved? 01:30:22 6.2 Riemannian geometry 01:31:14 6.3 Curved manifolds 01:34:37 6.4 Privileged character of 3+1 spacetime 01:34:46 7 See also 01:36:14 8 Notes 01:36:51 9 Additional details 01:37:38 10 References 01:38:29 11 Further reading 01:38:48 12 External links 01:39:28 γmv approaches mv, the classical term for momentum. Following this perspective, γm can be interpreted as a relativistic generalization of m. Einstein proposed that the relativistic mass of an object increases with velocity according to the formula mrel 01:40:08 mrelc 01:43:42 ±pc. 01:43:47 Four-momentum 01:45:36 Conservation laws 01:46:33 Total momentum 01:47:43 m2v2 collide to produce a single particle of conserved mass m 01:48:05 (m1v1 + m2v2)/(m1 + m2). The total momentum p 01:49:36 Choice of reference frames 01:50:43 Energy and momentum conservation 01:51:06 v − u, the momentum p' 01:51:35 0 both before and after collision. In the Newtonian analysis, conservation of mass dictates that m 01:52:36 mv, fail to behave properly under Lorentzian transformation. The linear transformation of velocities v' 01:55:48 4.12 MeV. Most of the energy is carried off by the near-zero-mass neutrino. 01:55:58 Beyond the basics 01:56:08 The topics in this section are of significantly greater technical difficulty than those in the preceding sections and are not essential for understanding Introduction to curved spacetime. 01:56:24 Rapidity 02:01:03 {\displaystyle \beta 02:05:48 4‑vectors 02:07:23 Definition of 4-vectors 02:09:43 Properties of 4-vectors 02:14:16 Examples of 4-vectors 02:22:07 4-vectors and physical law 02:23:16 Acceleration 02:24:24 Dewan–Beran–Bell spaceship paradox 02:30:29 Accelerated observer with horizon 02:33:42 {\displaystyle \gamma 02:37:09 Introduction to curved spacetime 02:37:20 Basic propositions 02:41:29 GMmg /r2 02:42:47 Curvature of time 02:44:12 (2gh)1/2, so that its total energy E, as measured by an observer on the ground, is m + ½mv2/c2 02:44:55 m', since otherwise one would be able to construct a perpetual motion device. We therefore predict that E' 02:49:32 Curvature of space 02:57:32 Sources of spacetime curvature 02:59:40 j terms (green) represent isotropic pressure, and the i ≠ j terms (blue) represent shear stresses.One important conclusion to be derived from the equations is that, colloquially speaking, gravity itself creates gravity. Energy has mass. Even in Newtonian gravity, the gravitational field is associated with an energy, E 03:00:52 Energy-momentum 03:03:02 Pressure and stress 03:04:29 Experimental verification 03:05:33 • Active, passive, and inertial mass 03:08:31 • Pressure as a gravitational source 03:10:49 9, while bromine has Z 03:12:11 • Gravitomagnetism 03:14:02 Technical topics 03:14:12 Is spacetime ...
Views: 37 wikipedia tts
European Union competition law | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union_competition_law 00:02:15 1 History 00:09:36 2 Mergers and monopolisation 00:09:47 2.1 Scope of competition law 00:13:39 2.2 Mergers and acquisitions 00:20:57 2.3 Abuse of dominance 00:33:10 2.4 Oligopolies 00:33:19 3 Cartels and collusion 00:33:59 3.1 Cartels 00:36:41 3.2 Exemptions 00:38:29 3.3 Vertical restraints 00:42:54 3.4 Joint ventures 00:43:20 4 Enforcement 00:43:30 4.1 Private actions 00:44:26 4.2 European enforcement 01:02:17 4.3 National authorities 01:06:20 4.4 International cooperation 01:07:44 5 State policy 01:07:54 5.1 Public services 01:17:01 5.2 Procurement 01:17:09 5.3 State aid 01:20:24 5.4 Liberalisation 01:24:45 6 Theory 01:26:18 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7158627749940543 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union. It promotes the maintenance of competition within the European Single Market by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies to ensure that they do not create cartels and monopolies that would damage the interests of society. European competition law today derives mostly from articles 101 to 109 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), as well as a series of Regulations and Directives. Four main policy areas include: Cartels, or control of collusion and other anti-competitive practices, under article 101 TFEU. Market dominance, or preventing the abuse of firms' dominant market positions under article 102 TFEU. Mergers, control of proposed mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures involving companies that have a certain, defined amount of turnover in the EU, according to the European Union merger law. State aid, control of direct and indirect aid given by Member States of the European Union to companies under TFEU article 107.Primary authority for applying competition law within the European Union rests with European Commission and its Directorate General for Competition, although state aids in some sectors, such as agriculture, are handled by other Directorates General. The Directorates can mandate that improperly-given state aid be repaid, as was the case in 2012 with Malev Hungarian Airlines.Leading ECJ cases on competition law include Consten & Grundig v Commission and United Brands v Commission.
Views: 26 wikipedia tts
Auburn Coach Wife Kristi Malzahn Agrees with Match & eHarmony: Men are Jerks
 
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My advice is this: Settle! That's right. Don't worry about passion or intense connection. Don't nix a guy based on his annoying habit of yelling "Bravo!" in movie theaters. Overlook his halitosis or abysmal sense of aesthetics. Because if you want to have the infrastructure in place to have a family, settling is the way to go. Based on my observations, in fact, settling will probably make you happier in the long run, since many of those who marry with great expectations become more disillusioned with each passing year. (It's hard to maintain that level of zing when the conversation morphs into discussions about who's changing the diapers or balancing the checkbook.) Obviously, I wasn't always an advocate of settling. In fact, it took not settling to make me realize that settling is the better option, and even though settling is a rampant phenomenon, talking about it in a positive light makes people profoundly uncomfortable. Whenever I make the case for settling, people look at me with creased brows of disapproval or frowns of disappointment, the way a child might look at an older sibling who just informed her that Jerry's Kids aren't going to walk, even if you send them money. It's not only politically incorrect to get behind settling, it's downright un-American. Our culture tells us to keep our eyes on the prize (while our mothers, who know better, tell us not to be so picky), and the theme of holding out for true love (whatever that is—look at the divorce rate) permeates our collective mentality. Even situation comedies, starting in the 1970s with The Mary Tyler Moore Show and going all the way to Friends, feature endearing single women in the dating trenches, and there's supposed to be something romantic and even heroic about their search for true love. Of course, the crucial difference is that, whereas the earlier series begins after Mary has been jilted by her fiancé, the more modern-day Friends opens as Rachel Green leaves her nice-guy orthodontist fiancé at the altar simply because she isn't feeling it. But either way, in episode after episode, as both women continue to be unlucky in love, settling starts to look pretty darn appealing. Mary is supposed to be contentedly independent and fulfilled by her newsroom family, but in fact her life seems lonely. Are we to assume that at the end of the series, Mary, by then in her late 30s, found her soul mate after the lights in the newsroom went out and her work family was disbanded? If her experience was anything like mine or that of my single friends, it's unlikely. And while Rachel and her supposed soul mate, Ross, finally get together (for the umpteenth time) in the finale of Friends, do we feel confident that she'll be happier with Ross than she would have been had she settled down with Barry, the orthodontist, 10 years earlier? She and Ross have passion but have never had long-term stability, and the fireworks she experiences with him but not with Barry might actually turn out to be a liability, given how many times their relationship has already gone up in flames. It's equally questionable whether Sex and the City's Carrie Bradshaw, who cheated on her kindhearted and generous boyfriend, Aidan, only to end up with the more exciting but self-absorbed Mr. Big, will be better off in the framework of marriage and family. (Some time after the breakup, when Carrie ran into Aidan on the street, he was carrying his infant in a Baby Björn. Can anyone imagine Mr. Big walking around with a Björn?)
Views: 208197 Shari Wing
JEL classification codes | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: JEL classification codes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Articles in economics journals are usually classified according to the JEL classification codes, a system originated by the Journal of Economic Literature. The JEL is published quarterly by the American Economic Association (AEA) and contains survey articles and information on recently published books and dissertations. The AEA maintains EconLit, a searchable data base of citations for articles, books, reviews, dissertations, and working papers classified by JEL codes for the years from 1969. A recent addition to EconLit is indexing of economics-journal articles from 1886 to 1968 parallel to the print series Index of Economic Articles.
Views: 53 wikipedia tts
Peter Joseph - Où allons-nous ? - 15 novembre 2009
 
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Conférence : Où allons-nous ? ("Where are we going ?") par Peter Joseph, Mouvement Zeitgeist - Université de Maharishi, Iowa - 15 novembre 2009. Cette conférence est la suite de celle donnée à Londres par Peter Joseph le 25 juillet 2009, "Où en sommes-nous aujourd'hui ?" : http://youtu.be/F2NAqQfVtBg * Partie 1 : Bagages évolutionnaires * Partie 2 : Concept Terre http://mouvement-zeitgeist.fr http://thezeitgeistmovement.com/ Pour activer les sous-titres en français, cliquez sur le bouton "Sous-titres" dans la fenêtre du lecteur.